A machine or apparatus for weaving yarn into fabric. The warp (lengthwise) threads are secured on the loom through the eyes of heddles and attached to the loom beam at the front of the loom. The filling (crosswise) thread darts between the warp threads as they are alternately lifted and lowered. sometimes carried by a shuttle, sometimes propelled by air pressure, or other methods in shuttless looms.
The Plain Weave Consists of one thread over and one thread under. This type is found in sheeting.
The Twill Weave Has each warp thread passing over two or more filling threads, with the interlacing advancing one thread on successive warps. This type, with its "diagonal line", is found in denims.
The Satin Weave Has few interlacings widely but regularly spaced, resulting in a lustrous "right" side and dull back. This type is found in dress goods.
Jacquard Design A woven design made with the aid of a jacquard head (this constitutes a jacquard loom) and may vary from simple, self-coloured, spot effects to elaborate, multicoloured, all over effects.
The Major Motions or Actions of looms are shedding, picking, and beating-up. Minor motions on looms are the take-up, let-off, and pattern. The first three motions are linked together as follows:
Shedding Motion The separating of the warp ends into an upper and lower system of threads to permit the shuttle to pass through the space that has been formed. The warp ends are drawn through heddle eyes in the correct manner, and in the turning-over of the crankshaft of the loom, a shed is formed with each turn.
Picking Motion The actual passing of the shuttle through the shed of the loom. The shuttle passes over the lowered ends of the shed and under its raised ends. The shed permits the shuttle to pass through it and thereby makes it possible for the shuttle to deposit the pick or filling yarn.
Beating-Up The actual beating into place of the loose pick that was placed in the shed of the loom in the picking motion. Beating-up makes each and every deposited yarn a component part of the woven cloth, The reed beats this pick into place with each consecutive turn of the crankshaft.
Derivation: Old English geloma - tool